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Haze prevention and control, foreign countries have taken what measures?

In recent years, the continuous fog and haze has greatly affected people's production, life and health, and has aroused widespread concern. How to effectively control haze, has become a hot issue of great concern to the whole society. And in December 2015 in Beijing city to start the red warning of heavy pollution air, ahead of many channels suggesting that the public good health protection, take part in industrial enterprises, the construction of emergency measures to limit production shutdown shutdown, single motor vehicle driving, primary and secondary schools and kindergartens will be closed, and coordinate the neighboring provinces to carry out emergency response, inhibit the heavy air pollution intensifies. But it has aroused great concern. From outside the box. We might as well look at some foreign countries governance haze what are more mature experience, what measures have taken?. I. Britain Mentioned haze, people first think of London, england. The island country's capital sea breeze blowing, it should not have haze. But the London smog incident, like a heavy hammer, made the British determined to start rectifying air pollution and spawned the world's first air pollution prevention act, the clean air act. Through a series of measures, by 1975, London's haze day decreased from days per year to 15 days, dropped to 5 days in 1980. Unfortunately, the fight against fog in London has not ended here. After 80s, the number of cars in London at that time surge in vehicle ownership reached 2 million 440 thousand units (as of the end of 2014, Beijing per hundred households have 63 cars, and this data in most countries average only 25 cars. According to the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau information, Beijing city's vehicle ownership in November 2015 reached 5 million 610 thousand vehicles, traffic congestion is serious. Since 1981, the number of London buses has grown by 20%, accounting for 43% of all work trips. Traffic pollution has become a major threat to air quality in London instead of industrial pollution. The British government has had to take a series of measures to combat the air pollution from cars. 1. Control the emission of nitrogen oxides pollution. Since January 1993, the United Kingdom has forced all new vehicles sold in the territory to be fitted with catalytic converters to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Control the carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon hydride in automobile exhaust, and check whether the carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and so on in the exhaust gas are checked. 2, limit the flow of private cars through traffic congestion fees and the development of public transport. Since February 2003, the London municipal government regulations, fees for regional central London area of 8.5 square kilometers (now expanded to 22 square kilometers), from Monday to Friday from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the toll area traffic, need to pay the congestion charge. Congestion fees have increased over the past 10 years, and have now risen from 5 pounds a day to 11.5 pounds. Subsequently, the city of London announced a more stringent traffic 2025 program to restrict private cars into london. Studies show that the measure reduces traffic congestion by 26% in the toll area. The driving speed in the area increased by 5-10 km / h; from 2003 to 2006, the measures reduced the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOX), PM10 and CO2 pollutants emitted by traffic, and the concentrations were 17%, 24% and 3% respectively. At the same time, London gives priority to the development of public transport networks, encourages the public to choose the subway or bus system to travel, and plans to build 12 bike highways.
3, promote bicycles instead of automobiles. Britain encourages citizens to ride bicycles, green travel, construction of 12 bike highways. Senior officials in Britain have set an example to control official vehicles and ride bicycles to travel green. London mayor Boris plans to 2023 to reduce 9% of private car traffic in london. Mayor Boris himself insists on cycling to and from work every day.
4, the London government introduced a low pollution emission zone policy in 2008. Vehicles running in low pollution emission areas have to meet certain emission standards, otherwise they will be levied. The aim is to speed up the replacement of heavily polluting vehicles, promote the installation of emission reduction devices for older vehicles, reduce vehicle pollution emissions, and improve air quality in london.
Two, the United States
Losangeles is an industrial city in the United States. It has been plagued by air pollution since the early twentieth Century. Especially in 1943 "Losangeles haze" incident and after the occurrence of "photochemical smog" pollution, so that the Losangeles government and the public are determined to take measures to cure haze. With the discovery and exploitation of fossil energy, the automobile ownership in Losangeles has been increasing continuously. In 70s of last century, the number of automobile in Losangeles increased from 2 million 500 thousand vehicles 30 years ago to about 4000000 vehicles.
1, the United States governance haze, first from the car. In Losangeles, the government for the sale of cars must be "clean", and after 1994 to sell the car all installed "drive diagnostic system, real-time monitoring of vehicle working condition, such as vehicles can exceed the standard timely to stop pollution and maintenance. California also has a stricter pollution prevention law than the US government's air quality laws, which guide and promote American and foreign car makers to improve vehicle emissions.
2, the development of public transport, reducing the amount of car use. Automobiles, ports, ships and cargo transport are the largest air pollution sources in Losangeles. Losangeles vigorously promote public transport, rail system expansion in the region and Losangeles city subway system; the establishment of more than two vehicles dedicated channel on the highway, and allows a single driving new energy vehicles dedicated channel in the urban areas; adding bike lanes; use shore power requirements of ship entered the port of Losangeles; the establishment of transit vehicles dedicated channel elimination; high polluting diesel vehicles etc..
3, encourage the development and utilization of clean energy and renewable energy. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has the power stations, cars and other small particles emission sources issued norms and guidance, including on the bus and light trucks to use clean energy, reduce emissions of diesel engine; implementation of multi-level emission standards, the requirements of engine manufacturer with advanced emission control standard products, so as to reduce emissions more than 90%. Losangeles area requires the use of natural gas instead of oil or coal power generation; encourage the use of renewable energy, solar energy and other new energy use; strengthen the renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development; for reducing greenhouse gases and ozone emissions policy; to improve building energy efficiency standards; providing financial subsidies for the purchase of new energy vehicles and the installation of solar equipment family.
Three, Germany
Germany's efforts to control air pollution have attracted worldwide attention. In 1970s, the air pollution in Germany became more and more serious, affecting the people's production and life. The German air pollution mainly through the improvement of the long-term mechanism and emergency measures act tough and talk soft.
1, according to law, the establishment of "environmental protection zone."". In 1974, the German government issued the federal Pollution Prevention Act, which formulated large-scale industrial enterprises pollution emission standards, requiring enterprises to air filter equipment within the prescribed time limit. This method has been revised and supplemented many times, and has now become a model law governing EU air pollution control. More than 40 cities in Germany have set up "air quality, environmental protection zones", allowing only vehicles that meet emission standards. Nature reserve is also located in the center of many big cities".
2, pay attention to rapid response, serious fog and haze banned vehicles closed down factories. If the air is seriously polluted, immediate action must be taken to respond quickly. Prohibit the operation of some vehicles or prohibit all vehicles from driving in serious polluted areas; restrict or close down large boilers and industrial equipment; limit the operation of construction sites in cities.
3, pay attention to long-term mechanism, set motor vehicle emission standards, all types of vehicles are required to meet the emission limit set. All EU member countries must comply with the European Union's motor vehicle standards. In order to reduce emissions, motor vehicles need to install exhaust filters such as particulate filters. In Germany, owners of filters are entitled to state subsidies. Strict establishment of large-scale boilers and industrial facilities discharge standards. The European Union has unified the industrial emission standard and promulgated the industrial emission order. At the same time, for small boilers and other heating equipment set emission standards.
4. Implement the air cleaning and action plan". More than 40 years ago, the German Ruhr Industrial Zone on both sides of the Rhine pollution. Now, the green mountains and rivers, fresh air, and the German 100 implementation of the "clean air and action plan" are inseparable. "Air cleaning and action plan" the specific way to reduce inhalable particles, first of all, to limit the release of particulate matter. For example, vehicle limit, speed limit, industrial equipment, limit operation, etc.. Second is the use of technical means to reduce emissions, such as the installation of particle filter. In 2007, the German legislature approved legislation to subsidize diesel cars that install particulate filters and impose surcharges on vehicles not equipped with filters.
Four, Japan
Japan was also suffering from air pollution in the early days of industrialization. Tokyo in 1999 more than 600 along the national highway in respiratory tract of patients in Shanghai automobile exhaust the body grounds sued the local government and the eight automobile companies, the experts, vehicle exhaust emissions PM2.5 has a strong carcinogenic effect. It is this lawsuit that has promoted the Japanese government's attention to PM2.5 and the determination of local governments to control traffic.
Waste gas treatment company
1, since 2000, the Japanese government began to require the installation of exhaust gas purification equipment, and banned excessive vehicles put into operation. After years of efforts, Japan has achieved good results in the control of vehicle exhaust emissions. At present, nearly one hundred thousand taxis in Tokyo have been successfully converted to natural gas, and the value of PM2.5 has been greatly reduced.
In 2 and 2003, Tokyo introduced a new legislation requiring cars to be fitted with filters and banned diesel engine vehicles from entering Tokyo. Nissan Motor Company had the world's most advanced exhaust filter technology.
In 3 and 2004, Tokyo used taxis for the hybrid electric power system. This car fuel economy performance is higher, can reduce fuel consumption, so at that time was called "ecological taxi"".
4, "environmental protection" two words in Japan in-depth people's hearts, the introduction of various regulations, but also affected the development trend of the Japanese automobile industry. Cars with less than 660cc of exhaust volume are popular because of their environmental protection and compactness, and become the mainstream of the Japanese auto market.
Five, France
In recent years, France has also been troubled by haze, Eiffel Tower and other buildings in the haze almost disappeared. Local time on March 13, 2014, a number of areas in France suffered high concentrations of particulate pollution. Paris in response to the continuing deterioration of fog and haze, has done the following measures:
1 and March 2014, the French capital, Paris, the implementation of car single and double alternate driving measures. On the first day of March 17th, thousands of vehicles were excluded from downtown Paris and crowded during the peak hours. It is reported that the last implementation of this measure in France in 1997.
2, the implementation of the three-day free public transport, including buses, subways, express and public bicycle, encourage people to drive less; area express, subway, buses and other public transport in Paris area will be free for public use.
3, the Paris municipal government and some institutions have introduced a number of emergency measures to encourage the public to reduce the use of private cars, and more choice of public transport travel. These include reducing the use of official vehicles, free parking in the residential areas, and partial rent reductions for bicycles and electric cars.
4, the speed limit of Paris Beltway will be reduced from 70 km per hour to 60 km. Through the Paris and its surrounding areas, the speed limit of expressways will be lowered by 20 km respectively.
Six, Italy
Milan was called the worst polluted city in Europe in 2008, and has since been on the list of Europe's worst polluted areas. Since 2007, Milan has repeatedly taken restrictions.
1, Italy, Milan, the most polluted car tax, work day 7 to 19, serious pollution of the car must pay 2 to 10 euros tax to enter the city.
2, Rome implement the "green Sunday" activities, only electric vehicles and other environmentally friendly vehicles to the streets. In December 21st and 22nd, Rome adopted a single and even number limit measures, with offenders being fined 150 euros ($165).
3, Milan from December 28, 2015 to 30 to take vehicle restrictions. Accordingly, Milan will increase public transport concessions, a price of 1.5 euros (about 1.65 U.S. dollars) of "anti haze" special tickets can be used all day.
Seven, Spain
Spain, Barcelona and Madrid have also adopted measures to reduce air pollution levels.
1, Barcelona region to speed up the implementation of the vehicle, 90 kilometers per hour new standards.
2, the Spanish capital of Madrid in November 12, 2015 for the first time announced the implementation of ban stop and speed control measures, the provisions prohibit non downtown area living in this area at the same time, the city parking, vehicle speed limit of 70 km / hour, less than before 80~90 km / hour average speed. The municipality urged 3 million 100 thousand people to travel by public transport.
3, according to the Madrid City emission pollution control plan, if the per cubic meter of air content of NO2 reached 250 micrograms, 200 micrograms or two in Tianda, the government will be issued a warning, urging the implementation of green travel and speed; second days if pollution is still serious, the city center is only allowed to nearby residents parking; if pollution continues to third days, the town would perform the single and double limit line measures, but also limit the free taxi driving.
Eight, Poland
Poland is the second largest city of Krakow recently implemented a new anti haze scheme: when the content of PM10 in the air reached 150 micrograms / cubic meter, the city immediately launched the emergency state of motor vehicle driver driving license in the show after I, can take the city bus, while others need normal ticket. In addition, vehicles carrying more than 3.5 tons are prohibited from entering the city centre and inner ring road.